Real-time tephra-fallout accumulation rates and grain-size distributions using ASHER (ASH collector and sizER) disdrometers

Year: 2022

Authors: Marchetti E., Poggi P., Donne D.D., Pistolesi M., Bonadonna C., Bagheri G., Pollastri S., Thivet S., Gheri D., Gurioli L., Harris A., Hoskuldsoon A., Ripepe M.

Autors Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universit?a degli Studi di Firenze, via Giorgio La Pira, 4, 50121, Firenze, Italy; Item s.r.l., Firenze, Italy; Istituto Nazionale di Ottica – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (INO-CNR), Largo E. Fermi, 6, 50125 Firenze, Italy; Osservatorio Vesuviano, INGV, via Diocleziano, 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy; Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univerit?a di Pisa, Pisa, Italy; Dypartement des Sciences de la Terre, University de Genive, CH-1205 Genive, Switzerland; Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, 37077 Goettingen, Germany; Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, IRD, OPGC, Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Ludwig-Maximilians-UniversitYOat, Munchen, Germany; Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, 102 Reykjavnk, Iceland.

Abstract: ASHER, a new sensor for the characterization of tephra fallout in real time, was designed and developed for easy field deployment during volcanic eruptions. It can provide information on the accumulation rate of tephra fallout in real time as well as grain-size and settling velocity of falling particles. Particle detection is achieved with a laser barrier, with size and settling velocity being calculated from the amplitude and duration of obscuration peaks. The sampling rate (31,500 Hz), laser thickness (0.5 mm) and operation (ON/OFF state and dual acquisition mode) are adapted to minimize the noise level and allow detection of particles as small as ~100 ?m. Additional measurements of weight and level of accumulated material within a removable collector allow broadening of the ASHER operation to accumulation rate from 10? 2 to 103 g m-2s-1. Detailed calibration tests were performed in laboratory conditions on single grains of known shape and density along with a high-speed camera to test the capability to measure grain size and terminal velocity, and during two field campaigns at Stromboli and Etna volcanoes to test the operation in the field. Long-term field deployment has shown that combining the optical barrier with an automatic collector allows for a better characterization of tephra fallout, providing an estimate of density, and, therefore, it optimizes sensor operation and minimizes false alerts. Moreover, the low power requirements and onboard processing allows to operate the sensor remotely and solely on solar power in a remote location. Although technical improvements in sensor sensitivity and processing are still possible, the results presented suggest that ground sensors for real-time detection and analysis of tephra could potentially contribute to understanding the dynamics of explosive eruptions and could be successfully integrated into monitoring systems of active volcanoes.


Volume: 429      Pages from: 107611-1  to: 107611-15

More Information: This project has received funding from the European Union´s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 731070 (EUROVOLC) and within the Seventh Framework Programme under the grant agreement No 308377 (FUTUREVOLC) . This is Labo- ratory of Excellence ClerVolc contribution number 550.
KeyWords: Tephra; Laser disdrometer; Monitoring; Grain size distribution; Fallout velocity
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2022.107611