Observation of vortices and vortex stripes in a dipolar condensate

Year: 2022

Authors: Klaus L., Bland T., Poli E., Politi C., Lamporesi G., Casotti E., Bisset R.N., Mark M.J., Ferlaino F.

Autors Affiliation: Institut f

Abstract: Quantized vortices are a prototypical feature of superfluidity that have been observed in multiple quantum gas experiments. But the occurrence of vortices in dipolar quantum gases–a class of ultracold gases characterized by long-range anisotropic interactions–has not been reported yet. Here we exploit the anisotropic nature of the dipole-dipole interaction of a dysprosium Bose-Einstein condensate to induce angular symmetry breaking in an otherwise cylindrically symmetric pancake-shaped trap. Tilting the magnetic field towards the radial plane deforms the cloud into an ellipsoid, which is then set into rotation. At stirring frequencies approaching the radial trap frequency, we observe the generation of dynamically unstable surface excitations, which cause angular momentum to be pumped into the system through vortices. Under continuous rotation, the vortices arrange into a stripe configuration along the field, in close agreement with numerical simulations.

Journal/Review: NATURE PHYSICS

Volume: 18 (12)      Pages from: 1453  to: 1458

More Information: We are grateful to S. B. Prasad, M. Norcia, R. M. W. van Bijnen and L. Santos for helpful discussions. We acknowledge M. Norcia and A. Patscheider for experimental contributions. This study received support from the European Research Council through the Consolidator Grant RARE (No. 681432), the QuantERA grant MAQS by the Austrian Science Fund FWF (No. I4391-N), and the DFG/FWF via FOR 2247/PI2790 a joint-project grant from the FWF (No. I4426). M. J. M. acknowledges support through an ESQ Discovery grant by the Austrian Academy of Sciences. We also acknowledge the Innsbruck Laser Core Facility, financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy. Part of the computational results presented have been achieved using the HPC infrastructure LEO of the University of Innsbruck. G. L. acknowledges financial support from Provincia Autonoma di Trento.
KeyWords: dipolar gases, vortices, magnetostirring
DOI: 10.1038/s41567-022-01793-8