Non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation in photonic systems

Year: 2022

Authors: Bloch J.; Carusotto I.; Wouters M.

Autors Affiliation: Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, University Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Palaiseau, France; INO-CNR BEC Center and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Trento, Italy; ITQC, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen, TQC, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen, Belgium

Abstract: The study of Bose-Einstein condensation effects in photonic systems has revealed a rich phenomenology related to spontaneous coherence generation in driven-dissipative spatially extended systems and is providing a new platform for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions and critical behaviours. In this Review, we give an interdisciplinary overview of condensation phenomena in photonic systems. We cover a wide range of systems, from lasers to photon condensates in dye-filled cavities, to excitons in semiconductor heterostructures, to microcavity polaritons, as well as emerging systems, such as mode-locked lasers and classical light waves. Our aim is to highlight novel universal phenomena that stem from the driven-dissipative, non-equilibrium nature of these systems and affect the static, dynamic, superfluid and coherence properties of the condensate. Finally, we provide our perspectives on the future of fundamental science and technological applications in this field.

Journal/Review: NATURE REVIEWS PHYSICS

Volume: 4 (7)      Pages from: 470  to: 488

More Information: J.B. acknowledges financial support from the Paris ile-de-France Region in the framework of DIM SIRTEQ, the QuantERA project ´InterPol´ (ANR-QUAN-0003-05), the French National Research Agency project ´Quantum Fluids of Light´ (ANR-16-CE30-0021) and the French RENATECH network. I.C. acknowledges financial support from the European Union FET-Open grant ´MIR-BOSE´ (no. 737017), from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento, from the Q@TN initiative and from Google via the quantum NISQ award. J.B. and I.C. acknowledge support from the European Union H2020-FETFLAG-2018-2020 project ´PhoQuS´ (no. 820392). M.W. acknowledges financial support from the FWO-Vlaanderen (grant no. G016219N).
KeyWords: exciton-polariton condensate; quantum nonlinear optics; room-temperature; semiconductor microcavity; stimulated scattering
DOI: 10.1038/s42254-022-00464-0

Citations: 21
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